|Balance of trade in goods||Balance of trade in services||Total trade balance|
The UK’s deficit in Trade in Goods and Services increased to £4.4 billion in April, up £1.5 billion from £3.0 billion in March.
The UK’s surplus in Trade in Services was estimated at £5.7 billion in April, down £0.1 billion compared with March. Exports of services rose by £0.1 billion (0.8 per cent) to £15.6 billion and imports of services rose by £0.2 billion (2.3 per cent) to £9.9 billion.
The UK’s deficit in Trade in Goods increased by £1.4 billion to £10.1 billion in April compared with March. Exports of goods fell by £2.2 billion (8.6 per cent), from £26.1 billion in March to £23.8 billion in April. Imports of goods fell by £0.9 billion (2.5 per cent) from £34.8 billion in March to £33.9 billion in April.
The deficit in trade in goods with EU countries widened by £0.3 billion to £4.9 billion in April, compared with a deficit of £4.6 billion in March, as exports fell by £0.9 billion (6.8 per cent) to £12.0 billion, and imports fell by £0.5 billion (3.0 per cent) to £16.9 billion.
The deficit on trade in goods with non-EU countries widened by £1.0 billion to £5.2 billion in April, compared with a deficit of £4.2 billion in March, as exports fell by £1.4 billion (10.3 per cent) to £11.8 billion and imports fell by £0.3 billion (1.9 per cent) to £17.0 billion.
The fall in total exports of goods was driven by lower exports of the following commodities:
The fall in total imports of goods was driven by lower imports of the following commodities:
This was partially offset by an increase in imports of the following commodities:
The volume of exports of goods (excluding oil and erratics) fell by 7.1 per cent, driven by a fall in export volumes of cars (down 23.1 per cent), chemicals (down 11.4 per cent), and basic materials (down 9.6 per cent). This was partially offset by an increase in export volumes of consumer goods other than cars (up 0.9 per cent). Export prices of goods fell by 1.2 per cent.
The volume of imports of goods (excluding oil and erratics) fell by 3.0 per cent, driven by a fall in import volumes of intermediate goods (down 5.8 per cent), food drink & tobacco (down 4.0 per cent), and semi manufactured goods other than chemicals (down 3.4 per cent). Import prices of goods fell by 1.9 per cent.
Care should be taken when using the month-on-month growth rates due to their volatility.
In April, the UK’s deficit on trade in goods was £10.1 billion, compared with a deficit of £8.7 billion in March.
Total exports fell by £2.2 billion (8.6 per cent) to £23.8 billion, and total imports fell by £0.9 billion (2.5 per cent) to £33.9 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see section on trade in oil)||-44||-259|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+26||-58|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-156||-123|
|Precious stones (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||-223||-234|
|Silver (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||+246|
In the three months ending April 2012, the deficit on trade in goods increased by £3.5 billion to £27.7 billion, compared with a deficit of £24.2 billion in the three months ending January 2012.
Total exports fell by £1.9 billion (2.5 per cent) to £74.7 billion, but total imports rose by £1.6 billion (1.5 per cent) to £102.4 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see section on trade in oil)||-213||+37|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+142||+604|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-40||-112|
|Silver (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||-402|
|Precious stones (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||+479|
In April, the deficit on trade in goods with EU countries widened by £0.3 billion to £4.9 billion, compared with a deficit of £4.6 billion in March.
EU exports fell by £0.9 billion (6.8 per cent) to £12.0 billion, and EU imports fell by £0.5 billion (3.0 per cent) to £16.9 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see section on trade in oil)||+6||-152|
|Consumer goods other than cars||-58||-104|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-75||-111|
In the three months ending April 2012, the deficit on trade in goods with EU countries widened by £1.5 billion to £13.4 billion, compared with a deficit of £11.9 billion in the three months ending January 2012. EU exports fell by £1.2 billion (3.0 per cent) to £38.0 billion, but EU imports rose by £0.3 billion (0.7 per cent) to £51.5 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see section 'trade in oil')||-84||+50|
|Consumer goods other than cars||-95||-44|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-251||-8|
In April, the deficit on trade in goods with non-EU countries increased by £1.0 billion to £5.2 billion, compared with a deficit of £4.2 billion in March.
Non-EU exports fell by £1.4 billion (10.3 per cent) to £11.8 billion, and non-EU imports fell by £0.3 billion (1.9 per cent) to £17.0 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see background notes on trade in oil)||-50||-107|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+84||+46|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-81||-12|
|Precious stones (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||-220|
|Silver (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||+268|
In the three months ending April 2012, the deficit on trade in goods with non-EU countries increased by £2.0 billion to £14.3 billion, compared with a deficit of £12.3 billion in the three months ending January 2012.
Non-EU exports fell by £0.7 billion (2.0 per cent) to £36.6 billion and non-EU imports rose by £1.2 billion (2.4 per cent) to £50.9 billion. At the commodity level:
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Oil (see background notes on trade in oil)||-129||-13|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+237||+648|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||+211||-104|
|Precious stones (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||+493|
|Silver (see background notes - Interpreting the data)||-427|
Within the EU countries, exports to Germany fell by £0.5 billion. Among Non-EU countries, exports to South Korea rose by £0.1 billion. Exports to the USA fell by £0.3 billion and exports to both China and Turkey fell by £0.1 billion.
Within the EU countries, imports from both Belgium and the Netherlands fell by £0.1 billion. Among non-EU countries, imports from China rose by £0.2 billion and imports from Taiwan and Nigeria rose by £0.1 billion. Imports from Norway fell by £0.2 billion and imports from Japan fell by £0.1 billion.
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Apr-12||1 month||Apr-12||1 month|
|1 Significant trading partners defined as top 10 export markets & import sources 2011 (see Monthly Review of External Trade table G1).|
Within the EU countries, there were no export movements in excess of £0.3 billion. Among Non-EU countries, exports to the USA fell by £0.5 billion.
Within the EU countries, there were no import movements in excess of £0.3 billion. Among Non-EU countries, imports from Russia rose by £0.3 billion.
|Exports (£m)||Imports (£m)|
|Feb - Apr||3 month||Feb - Apr||3 month|
|1 Significant trading partners defined as top 10 export markets & import sources 2010 (see Monthly Review of External Trade table G1).|
In April, the volume of exports fell by 7.1 per cent and the volume of imports fell by 3.0 per cent, compared with March. At the commodity level:
|% change||% change|
|Food, beverages and tobacco||-6.1||-4.0|
|Semi manufactured goods; of which||-9.4||-2.8|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||-6.5||-3.4|
|Finished manufactured goods; of which||-5.5||-2.0|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+0.9||-1.0|
In the three months ending April 2012, the volume of exports fell by 1.4 per cent, but the volume of imports rose by 0.8 per cent, compared with the three months ending January 2012. At the commodity level:
|% change||% change|
|Food, beverages and tobacco||-3.2||-1.0|
|Semi manufactured goods; of which||+1.0||+1.0|
|Semi-manufactured goods other than chemicals||+1.1||-2.2|
|Finished manufactured goods; of which||-1.9||+1.0|
|Consumer goods other than cars||+2.3||+4.5|
In April, export prices fell by 1.2 per cent and import prices fell by 1.9 per cent, compared with March. This led to an increase in the terms of trade. Excluding the oil price effect, export prices fell by 0.7 per cent and import prices fell by 1.3 per cent.
In the three months ending April 2012, export prices rose by 1.5 per cent and import prices rose by 2.2 per cent. This led to an decrease in the terms of trade. Excluding the oil price effect, export prices rose by 0.2 per cent and import prices rose by 0.7 per cent.
In April, the balance on trade in oil was in deficit by £1.2 billion, compared with a deficit of £1.4 billion in March. Oil exports fell by less than £0.1 billion to £3.3 billion and oil imports fell by £0.3 billion to £4.5 billion.
In the three months ending April 2012, the balance on trade in oil was in deficit by £3.3 billion, compared with a deficit of £3.1 billion in the three months ending January 2012. Oil exports fell by £0.2 billion to £10.0 billion and oil imports rose by less than £0.1 billion to £13.4 billion.
In April, the UK’s estimated surplus on trade in services fell to £5.7 billion, compared with an estimated surplus of £5.8 billion in March.
Exports rose by £0.1 billion (0.8 per cent) to £15.6 billion, and imports rose by £0.2 billion (2.3 per cent) to £9.9 billion.
In the three months ending April 2012, the estimated surplus on trade in services increased by £0.4 billion to £17.1 billion, compared with a surplus of £16.8 billion in the three months ending January 2012.
Total exports rose by £0.4 billion (0.8 per cent) to £46.5 billion and total imports rose by less than £0.1 billion (0.1 per cent) to £29.4 billion.
UK Trade record information for April 2012 can be accessed at the ONS website.
This release conforms to the standard revisions policy for National Accounts. In this release, periods from January 2012 are open for revision.
UK Trade designated as National Statistics
The United Kingdom Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as National Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.
Designation can be broadly interpreted to mean that the statistics:
• meet identified user needs;
• are well explained and readily accessible;
• are produced according to sound methods, and
• are managed impartially and objectively in the public interest.
Once statistics have been designated as National Statistics it is a statutory requirement that the Code of Practice shall continue to be observed.
An article outlining the ONS policy on special events can be found on the National Statistics website.
As part of the celebrations for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee there are changes to bank holidays in May and June 2012. The late May bank holiday moves into June, and there is an additional day's holiday. The change to the holidays will count as a statistical special event in line with ONS's policy on Special Events. The event is not regular, so there will not be an adjustment to account for it as part of the seasonal adjustment process. Users are therefore likely to see an effect related to an additional working day in May and two fewer working days in June in the seasonally adjusted series. ONS will include commentary with releases as usual, including commentary specifically to help users with the interpretation of statistics in these two months. Nevertheless, caution should be taken when interpreting the movements in affected outputs that involve May and June 2012.
Code of Practice for Official Statistics
National Statistics are produced to high professional standards set out in the Code of Practice for Official Statistics. They undergo regular quality assurance reviews to ensure that they meet customer needs. They are produced free from any political interference. © Crown copyright 2012.
Understanding the data
Short Guide to UK Trade
Ever since statistics on exports and imports of goods were first collected in 1697 UK trade has been one of the country’s key economic indicators.
All information included in the monthly UK Trade Statistical Bulletin is on a Balance of Payments (BoP) basis and is seasonally adjusted. The release contains tables showing the total value of trade in goods together with index numbers of volume and price, figures analysed by broad commodity group (values and indices) and according to geographical area (values only). In addition the Trade statistical bulletin also includes early monthly estimates of the value of trade in services.
Data appearing in the UK Trade statistical bulletin are also used as a direct input into the quarterly Balance of Payments and National Accounts.
Interpreting the data
Monthly commodity movements for Food, beverages and tobacco, Basic materials, Fuels other than oil, and Erratics (Ships, Aircraft, Precious stones, and Silver) are only detailed in this Statistical Bulletin where they are equal to or exceed £200 million (£400 million for three monthly comparisons).
Monthly country movements are only detailed in this Statistical Bulletin where they are equal to or exceed £0.1 billion (£0.3 billion for three monthly comparisons).
In months where quarterly and three monthly ending percentage changes for index data coincide there may be small differences between the data for methodological reasons. Quarterly data are the indexed form of an underlying constant price (for volume indices) or consistent quantity (for price indices) series. Three month ending data are the average of the index data in that period.
VAT Missing Trader Intra Community (MTIC) fraud
Import figures for trade in goods include adjustments to allow for the impact of VAT MTIC fraud.
The adjustments to trade in goods relate only to part of the carousel version of VAT MTIC fraud. This fraud leads to under recording of imports as fraudsters import goods from the EU, which they then sell on before disappearing without paying VAT on that sale. The goods are eventually exported. Such exports are declared and are therefore already reflected in the UK’s trade in goods statistics.
Changes to the pattern of trading associated with MTIC fraud can make it difficult to analyse trade by commodity group and by country as changes in the impact of activity associated with this fraud affect both imports and exports. However, the MTIC trade adjustments are added to the EU import estimates derived from Intrastat returns as it is this part of the trading chain that is not generally recorded. In particular, adjustments affect trade in capital goods and intermediate goods - these categories include mobile phones and computer components, which are still the most widely affected goods.
International convention determines that the treatment of the impact is to adjust imports upwards by the relevant amounts of missing declarations (non-response). However, users may wish to interpret short term movements in imports excluding that part of the fraudulent activity that is not included in the import estimates, and for this purpose an analysis of the import figures with the VAT MTIC adjustments excluded is shown in Table 13.
Definitions and explanations
A glossary of terms is published in the UK Balance of Payments Pink Book.
Use of the data
UK Trade is a key economic indicator due to the importance of international trade to the UK economy. It is also a very timely statistic, providing an early indicator of what is happening more generally in the economy.
In addition, it is a major component of two other key economic statistics – UK Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the UK Balance of Payments. This means that there is a threefold potential for UK Trade statistics to inform the Government’s view of the UK economy, as well as the views of others, such as economists, City analysts, academics, the media, and international organisations.
Notes on tables – rounding:
The sum of constituent items in tables do not always agree exactly with the totals shown due to rounding.
.. Not applicable
- Nil or less than half the final digit shown.
Detailed methodological notes are published in the UK Balance of Payments (Pink Book).
Seasonal adjustment aims to remove effects associated with the time of the year or the arrangement of the calendar so that movements within a time series may be more easily interpreted.
It is common for the value of a group of financial transactions to be measured in several time periods. The values measured will include both the change in the volume sold and the effect of the change of prices over that year. Deflation is the process whereby the effect of price change is removed from a set of values.
Chain-linked indices (chained volume measures) which are indexed to form the volume series in this bulletin differ from fixed base indices in that the growth from one year to the next is estimated by weighting the components using the contribution to value of trade in the immediately preceding year (effectively re-basing every year). This series of annually re-weighted annual growths is then ‘chain-linked’ to produce a continuous series.
The implied price deflators derived by comparing current price data to chained volume measures data are not the same as the price indices published in this statistical bulletin because the former are current weighted while the latter are base (2008) weighted.
Changes in trade associated with VAT MTIC fraud mean that comparisons of volume and prices (both including and excluding trade associated with VAT MTIC fraud) should be treated with a great deal of caution.
A paper, Statistics on Trade in Goods (GSS Methodological Series No. 36) describing the adjustments that need to be applied to conform to IMF definitions for Balance of Payments and the division of responsibility between ONS and HMRC is available on the National Statistics website.
The Overseas Trade Statistics (OTS) data used as inputs to this statistical bulletin are collected and published by Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) on an International Merchandise Trade Statistics (IMTS) basis.
Basic quality information
Trade in goods figures for the most recent months are provisional and subject to revision in the light of (a) late trader data, revisions to trade prices and revised estimates of trading associated with VAT MTIC fraud, and (b) revisions to seasonal adjustment factors which are re-estimated every month.
Trade in services estimates have been derived from a number of monthly and quarterly sources. For components where no monthly data are available, estimates have been derived on the basis of recent trends. The results should be used with appropriate caution, as they are therefore likely to be less reliable than those for trade in goods. More details of the data sources, estimation methodology and reliability of the monthly estimates of trade in services were set out in Economic Trends (January 1996 and September 1997).
Revisions to data provide one indication of the reliability of key indicators. The table below shows summary information on the size and direction of the revisions which have been made to the data covering a five year period. A statistical test has been applied to the average revision to find out if it is statistically significantly different from zero. An asterisk (*) shows that the test is significant. An article explaining the past revisions performance for UK Trade statistics and what is being done to improve the first published estimates was published on 9 May 2005 on the National Statistics website.
|Revisions between first publication and estimates twelve months later|
|Value in latest period||Average over the last 5 years (mean revision)||Average over the last 5 years without regard to sign (average absolute revision)|
|Total trade exports (IKBH)||39419||755||1 011|
|Total trade imports (IKBI)||43840||406||763|
|Total trade balance (IKBJ)||-4421||357||602|
The table covers estimates of UK trade first published from June 2006 (for April 2006) to March 2011 (for January 2011). Spreadsheets giving these estimates and the calculations behind the averages in the table is available on the National Statistics website
An article analysing past revisions to quarterly balance of payments current account data was published in the May 2007 edition of Economic & Labour Market Review. It is available on the National Statistics website
More information about revisions material in this Statistical Bulletin can be found on the National Statistics website
Coherence - EU enlargement and country coverage: Two more countries joined the EU from 1 January 2007. These countries were Bulgaria and Romania. In addition, the coverage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries was extended to include Slovenia. In order to enable users to make long-run comparisons, data for the new definition EU and non-EU was produced from January 1998 onwards for value, and from January 1999 onwards for volume and price indices. At the same time data for the old definitions were no longer maintained. There are additional series for country groupings on the old definitions.
The coverage of EMU countries was extended to cover Cyprus and Malta from July 2008, Slovakia from January 2009, and Estonia from January 2011. Some EU and non-EU breakdowns of commodity data for Chained Volume Measures which are available from the Statbase® service may be less reliable than the current price data. Please consult Marilyn Thomas on 01633 455708 if you are considering using them.
Data have been combined for the United States and Puerto Rico, and for Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Sharjah (the United Arab Emirates) from January 2009 onwards. Estimates are separately available for the United States and Dubai up until the end of 2008 on request.
Summary quality report
A Summary Quality Report for this Statistical Bulletin and associated data can be found on the National Statistics website.
National Accounts revisions policy
National Accounts revision policy can be found on the National Statistics website.
Table 14R shows revisions to the main aggregates since the last Trade Statistical Bulletin of 15 May 2012. The revisions to trade in goods from January 2012 reflect revised data from Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs and other data suppliers, revised estimates of trading associated with VAT MTIC fraud, later survey data on trade prices and a re-assessment of seasonal factors.
Revisions to trade in services data, from January 2012 onwards, bring the monthly data in-line with the Second estimate of GDP, Q1 2012 Statistical Bulletin published on 24 May 2012.
Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available from the Media Relations Office. Also available is a list of the organisations given pre-publication access to the contents of this bulletin.
Supplementary commodity data for this Statistical Bulletin (Monthly Review of External Trade Statistics); and quarterly data analysed by industry according to the Standard Industrial Classification (UK Trade in Goods Analysed in Terms of Industries) are also available free of charge as PDF files on the National Statistics website.
The complete run of data in the tables of this Statistical Bulletin are also available to view and download in other electronic formats free of charge using the ONS Time Series Data website service. Users can download the complete Statistical Bulletin in a choice of zipped formats, or view and download their own selections of individual series. The Time Series Data service can be accessed on the National Statistics website.
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Next publication: 10 July 2012
Issued by: Office for National Statistics, Government Buildings, Cardiff Road, Newport NP10 8XG
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Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: email@example.com
These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.
|Marilyn Thomas||+44 (0)1633 455708||Trade in Transfers / Office for National Statisticsfirstname.lastname@example.org|